Category Archives: Series: PowerShell Automation

Automating with PowerShell: Automatically uploading applications to intune tenants

So I’ve been doubting if I should make this blog. I found that others had already done this and maybe my method would just be redundant. After some slight convincing I figured my method does have its merits. One of them being that it uses the secure application model, and thus its easy to apply to all partner tenants for a CSP, the other benefit is that this could run headless as a completely automated solution.

Most MSPs create a baseline of applications for their clients that’s the same across the entire stack, 7zip, Chrome, things that we believe should be installed by default. This script allows you to apply that baseline across all your tenants.

So to get start we’ll have to do a couple of things, just to make sure you have everything:

  • Setup the secure app model, and collect the information you’ll need
  • Grab all the installers you want to use and put them all in a folder, I use C:\intune\Applications, so 7zip would be C:\intune\aplications\7-zip
  • for each application you’ll need a new app.json. To create the app.json, you can use the example below.
  • You’ll need Azcopy, and IntuneWinAppUtil. The script also download it for you, but please host the files yourselves. 🙂

Filling out the JSON actually is not that hard; for most applications you’ll only need to replace the Displayname, InstallCommandLine, UninstallCommandLine, and detection rules. If you need help on all the options I’d suggest the Graph API manual.

If you are using a path, or illegal character you can escape these by adding “\” infront of it.

Example JSON

{

  "displayName": "CyberDrain.com 7Zip",
  "installCommandLine": "ninite.exe /Select \"7-zip\" /silent /disableshortcuts",
  "uninstallCommandLine": "ninite.exe /Select \"7-zip\" /silent /uninstall",
  "description": "Ninite Pro to Install 7zip.",
  "developer": "CyberDrain.com",
  "owner": "Cyberdrain.com",
  "informationUrl": "https://cyberdrain.com",
  "privacyInformationUrl": "https://cyberdrain.com",
  "fileName": "IntunePackage.intunewin",
  "@odata.type": "#microsoft.graph.win32LobApp",
  "applicableArchitectures": "x86, x64",

  "installExperience": {
    "runAsAccount": "user",
    "deviceRestartBehavior": "allow",
    "@odata.type": "microsoft.graph.win32LobAppInstallExperience"
  },
  "detectionRules": [
    {
  "@odata.type": "#microsoft.graph.win32LobAppFileSystemDetection",
  "path": "%programfiles%\\7-zip",
  "fileOrFolderName": "7z.exe",
  "check32BitOn64System": false,
  "detectionType": "exists" }
  ],
      "returncode":  [
                       {
                           "returnCode":  0,
                           "type":  "success",
                           "@odata.type":  "#microsoft.graph.win32LobAppReturnCode"
                       },
                       {
                           "returnCode":  1707,
                           "type":  "Success",
                           "@odata.type":  "#microsoft.graph.win32LobAppReturnCode"
                       },
                       {
                           "returnCode":  1641,
                           "type":  "hardReboot",
                           "@odata.type":  "#microsoft.graph.win32LobAppReturnCode"
                       },
                       {
                           "returnCode":  1618,
                           "type":  "retry",
                           "@odata.type":  "#microsoft.graph.win32LobAppReturnCode"
                       },
                       {
                           "returnCode":  3010,
                           "type":  "softReboot",
                           "@odata.type":  "#microsoft.graph.win32LobAppReturnCode"
                       }
					   ],
  "minimumNumberOfProcessors": "1",
  "minimumFreeDiskSpaceInMB": "8",
  "minimumCpuSpeedInMHz": "4",
  "minimumSupportedOperatingSystem": {
    "@odata.type": "microsoft.graph.windowsMinimumOperatingSystem",
    "v10_1607": true
  },
  "notes": "Loaded via cyberdrain.com application script",
  "minimumMemoryInMB": "1"

  
}

The script: Deploy Intune Applications.

So this script took some figuring out, I’ve been using the examples found here, and Ben Reader’s version right here. There’s some tricks we apply but the one you should be aware of is the padding – We pad the file with a 10mb file to make sure that we can upload using Azcopy. The script is completely headless, so just run it and it will upload all the apps.

The options are straight forward – just fill in all the information and run the script. You can even re-upload apps by changing $ContinueonExistingApp to true. The script currently runs for just the tenant you specify. That way, you can schedulde multiple scripts with different options for different clients. If you’d like a version for all tenants at the same time, let me know!

########################## Secure App Model Settings ############################
$ApplicationId = 'YourAppID'
$ApplicationSecret = 'YourAppSecret' | Convertto-SecureString -AsPlainText -Force
$TenantID = 'YourCSPTenantID'
$RefreshToken = 'yourverylongrefeshtoken'
$upn = 'UPN-Used-To-Generate-Tokens'
$CustomerTenantID = "YourCustomerTenant.onmicrosoft.com"
########################## Script Settings  ############################
$ApplicationFolder = "C:\intune\Applications"
$Baseuri = "https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/deviceAppManagement/mobileApps"
$AzCopyUri = "https://cyberdrain.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/azcopy.exe"
$IntuneWinAppUri = "https://cyberdrain.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/IntuneWinAppUtil.exe"
$ContinueOnExistingApp = $false
###################################################################
write-host "Checking AZCopy prerequisites and downloading these if required" -ForegroundColor Green
try {
    $AzCopyDownloadLocation = Test-Path "$ApplicationFolder\AzCopy.exe"
    if (!$AzCopyDownloadLocation) { 
        Invoke-WebRequest -UseBasicParsing -Uri $AzCopyUri -OutFile "$($ApplicationFolder)\AzCopy.exe" 
    }
}
catch {
    write-host "The download and extraction of AzCopy failed. The script will stop. Error: $($_.Exception.Message)"
    exit 1
}
write-host "Checking IntuneWinAppUtil prerequisites and downloading these if required" -ForegroundColor Green

try {
    $AzCopyDownloadLocation = Test-Path "$ApplicationFolder\IntuneWinAppUtil.exe"
    if (!$AzCopyDownloadLocation) { Invoke-WebRequest -UseBasicParsing -Uri $IntuneWinAppUri -OutFile "$($ApplicationFolder)\IntuneWinAppUtil.exe" }
}
catch {
    write-host "The download and extraction of IntuneWinApp failed. The script will stop. Error: $($_.Exception.Message)"
    exit 1
}

$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential($ApplicationId, $ApplicationSecret)
write-host "Generating token to log into Intune" -ForegroundColor Green
$graphToken = New-PartnerAccessToken -ApplicationId $ApplicationId -Credential $credential -RefreshToken $refreshToken -Scopes 'https://graph.microsoft.com/.default' -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $CustomerTenantID
$Header = @{
    Authorization = "Bearer $($graphToken.AccessToken)"
}
$AppFolders = Get-ChildItem $ApplicationFolder -Directory 
foreach ($App in $AppFolders) {
    $intuneBody = get-content "$($app.fullname)\app.json"
    $Settings = $intuneBody | ConvertFrom-Json 
    write-host "Creating if intune package for $($app.name) does not exists." -ForegroundColor Green
    $ApplicationList = (Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $baseuri -Headers $Header -Method get -ContentType "application/json").value | where-object { $_.DisplayName -eq $settings.displayName }
    if ($ApplicationList.count -gt 1 -and $ContinueOnExistingApp -eq $false) { 
        write-host "$($app.name) exists. Skipping this application." -ForegroundColor yellow
        continue
    }
    write-host "Creating intune package for $($App.Name)" -ForegroundColor Green
    $bytes = 10MB
    [System.Security.Cryptography.RNGCryptoServiceProvider] $rng = New-Object System.Security.Cryptography.RNGCryptoServiceProvider
    $rndbytes = New-Object byte[] $bytes
    $rng.GetBytes($rndbytes)
    [System.IO.File]::WriteAllBytes("$($App.fullname)\dummy.dat", $rndbytes)
    $FileToExecute = $Settings.installCommandLine.split(" ")[0]
    start-process "$applicationfolder\IntuneWinAppUtil.exe" -argumentlist "-c $($App.FullName) -s $FileToExecute -o $($App.FullName)" -wait
    write-host "Creating Application on intune platform for $($App.Name)" -ForegroundColor Green
    $InTuneProfileURI = "$($BaseURI)"
    $NewApp = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $InTuneProfileURI -Headers $Header -body $intuneBody -Method POST -ContentType "application/json"
    write-host "Getting encryption information for intune file for $($App.Name)" -ForegroundColor Green

    $intuneWin = get-childitem $App.fullname -Filter *.intunewin
    #unzip the detection.xml file to get manifest info and encryptioninfo.
    $Directory = [System.IO.Path]::GetDirectoryName("$($intuneWin.fullname)")
    Add-Type -Assembly System.IO.Compression.FileSystem
    $zip = [IO.Compression.ZipFile]::OpenRead("$($intuneWin.fullname)")
    $zip.Entries | Where-Object { $_.Name -like "Detection.xml" } | ForEach-Object {
        [System.IO.Compression.ZipFileExtensions]::ExtractToFile($_, "$Directory\Detection.xml", $true)
    }
    $zip.Dispose()
    $intunexml = get-content "$Directory\Detection.xml"
    remove-item  "$Directory\Detection.xml" -Force
    #Unzip the encrypted file to prepare for upload.
    $Directory = [System.IO.Path]::GetDirectoryName("$($intuneWin.fullname)")
    Add-Type -Assembly System.IO.Compression.FileSystem
    $zip = [IO.Compression.ZipFile]::OpenRead("$($intuneWin.fullname)")
    $zip.Entries | Where-Object { $_.Name -like "IntunePackage.intunewin" } | ForEach-Object {
        [System.IO.Compression.ZipFileExtensions]::ExtractToFile($_, "$Directory\IntunePackage.intunewin", $true)
    }
    $zip.Dispose()
    $ExtactedEncFile = (Get-Item "$Directory\IntunePackage.intunewin")
    $intunewinFileSize = (Get-Item "$Directory\IntunePackage.intunewin").Length
  
    $ContentBody = ConvertTo-Json @{
        name          = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.FileName
        size          = [int64]$intunexml.ApplicationInfo.UnencryptedContentSize
        sizeEncrypted = [int64]$intunewinFileSize
    } 
    write-host "Uploading content information for $($App.Name)." -ForegroundColor Green

    $ContentURI = "$($BaseURI)/$($NewApp.id)/microsoft.graph.win32lobapp/contentVersions/1/files/"
    $ContentReq = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $ContentURI -Headers $Header -body $ContentBody -Method POST -ContentType "application/json"
    write-host "Trying to get file uri for $($App.Name)." -ForegroundColor Green
    do {
        write-host "Still trying to get file uri for $($App.Name) Please wait." -ForegroundColor Green
        $AzFileUriCheck = "$($BaseURI)/$($NewApp.id)/microsoft.graph.win32lobapp/contentVersions/1/files/$($ContentReq.id)"
        $AzFileUri = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $AzFileUriCheck -Headers $Header -Method get -ContentType "application/json"
        if ($AZfileuri.uploadState -like "*fail*") { break }
        start-sleep 5
    } while ($AzFileUri.AzureStorageUri -eq $null) 
    write-host "Retrieved upload URL. Uploading package $($App.Name) via AzCopy." -ForegroundColor Green

    $UploadResults = & "$($ApplicationFolder)\azCopy.exe" cp "$($ExtactedEncFile.fullname)" "$($Azfileuri.AzureStorageUri)"  --block-size-mb 4 --output-type 'json'    
    remove-item @($intunewin.fullname, $ExtactedEncFile) -Force
    start-sleep 2

    write-host "File uploaded. Commiting $($App.Name) with Encryption Info" -ForegroundColor Green

    $EncBody = @{
        fileEncryptionInfo = @{
            encryptionKey        = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.EncryptionKey
            macKey               = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.MacKey
            initializationVector = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.InitializationVector
            mac                  = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.Mac
            profileIdentifier    = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.ProfileIdentifier
            fileDigest           = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.FileDigest
            fileDigestAlgorithm  = $intunexml.ApplicationInfo.EncryptionInfo.FileDigestAlgorithm
        }
    } | ConvertTo-Json
    $CommitURI = "$($BaseURI)/$($NewApp.id)/microsoft.graph.win32lobapp/contentVersions/1/files/$($ContentReq.id)/commit"
    $CommitReq = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $CommitURI -Headers $Header -body $EncBody -Method POST -ContentType "application/json"

    write-host "Waiting for file commit results for $($App.Name)." -ForegroundColor Green

    do {
        write-host "Still trying to get commit state. Please wait." -ForegroundColor Green

        $CommitStateURL = "$($BaseURI)/$($NewApp.id)/microsoft.graph.win32lobapp/contentVersions/1/files/$($ContentReq.id)"
        $CommitStateReq = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $CommitStateURL -Headers $Header -Method get -ContentType "application/json"
        if ($CommitStateReq.uploadState -like "*fail*") { write-host "Commit Failed for $($App.Name). Moving on to Next application. Manual intervention will be required" -ForegroundColor red; break }
        start-sleep 10
    } while ($CommitStateReq.uploadState -eq "commitFilePending") 
    if ($CommitStateReq.uploadState -like "*fail*") { continue }
    write-host "Commiting application version" -ForegroundColor Green
    $ConfirmBody = @{
        "@odata.type"             = "#microsoft.graph.win32lobapp"
        "committedContentVersion" = "1"
    } | Convertto-Json
    $CommitFinalizeURI = "$($BaseURI)/$($NewApp.id)"
    $CommitFinalizeReq = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $CommitFinalizeURI -Headers $Header -body $Confirmbody -Method PATCH -ContentType "application/json"
    write-host "Deployment completed for app $($app.name). You can assign this app to users now." -ForegroundColor Green
}

So if you combine this with my earlier autopilot automation blog, you could easily setup the entire autopilot experience, with very little effort. And that’s it! as always, Happy PowerShelling.

Automating with PowerShell: Automating intune Autopilot configuration

So yesterday I was watching a webinar about intune and Autopilot. Autopilot is pretty cool for MSPs because it becomes fairly simple to give users a nice OOBE. It also makes setup for devices a lot less of a hassle, the only issue that was spoken about during the webinar is that there is still a lot of manual clicking.

This is why I took it upon myself to create some automation scripts for AutoPilot. We’re using the Graph API so you’ll need to setup your Secure Application Model before you can use these scripts. You’ll also need to perform the following steps to add a permission to the application:

  • Go to the Azure Portal.
  • Click on Azure Active Directory, now click on “App Registrations”.
  • Find your Secure App Model application. You can search based on the ApplicationID.
  • Go to “API Permissions” and click Add a permission.
  • Choose “Microsoft Graph” and “Application permission”.
  • Search for “Reports” and click on “DeviceManagementServiceConfig.ReadWrite.All”. Click on add permission
  • Do the same for “Delegate Permissions”.
  • Finally, click on “Grant Admin Consent for Company Name.

Importing Device ID’s for autopilot

So one of the first things I noticed is that engineers are still entering device ID’s manually, or uploading CSV files by logging into the portal, etc. That seems like a bit of an hassle to me, so for that you can use the following script.

First you’ll have to create your import CSV file, Most of the time this can be downloaded from your supplier, or requested. When you have this file, execute the script.

########################## Office 365 ############################
$ApplicationId = 'YourApplicationID'
$ApplicationSecret = 'SecretApplicationSecret' | Convertto-SecureString -AsPlainText -Force
$TenantID = 'YourTenantID'
$RefreshToken = 'SuperSecretRefreshToken'
$upn = 'UPN-Used-To-Generate-Tokens'
$CustomerTenantID = "YOURCLIENTSTENANT.onmicrosoft.com"
$CSVFilePath = "C:\Temp\Import-CSV-YourClientsTenant.txt"
########################## Office 365 ############################
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential($ApplicationId, $ApplicationSecret)
write-host "Generating token to log into Intune" -ForegroundColor Green
$graphToken = New-PartnerAccessToken -ApplicationId $ApplicationId -Credential $credential -RefreshToken $refreshToken -Scopes 'https://graph.microsoft.com/.default' -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $CustomerTenantID
$Header = @{
    Authorization = "Bearer $($graphToken.AccessToken)"
}
write-host "Importing CSV File." -ForegroundColor Green
$CsvFile = Import-Csv $CSVFilePath -Delimiter ","
#$RandGuid = [guid]::NewGuid()
foreach ($Line in $CsvFile) {
    $intuneBody = @{
        orderIdentifier    = "CyberDrain.com Import Script"
        serialNumber       = $line.'Device Serial Number'
        productKey         = $line.'Windows Product ID'
        hardwareIdentifier = $Line.'Hardware Hash'
        state              = @{
            deviceImportStatus   = 'Complete'
            deviceRegistrationId = '1'
            deviceErrorCode      = '15'
            deviceErrorName      = "No Errors Detected"
        }
    } | ConvertTo-Json

    $InTuneDevicesURI = "https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/deviceManagement/importedWindowsAutopilotDeviceIdentities"
    Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $InTuneDevicesURI -Headers $Header -body $intuneBody -Method POST -ContentType "application/json"

}

After executing this script, it’ll appear in your client’s intune portal like this. This can take some time sometimes because of the Sync on the Microsoft side. You can force this by hitting the “Sync” button.

You could easily automate this script to run on a schedule, and just replace the CSV file whenever you want. That way you import your devices with zero-touch.

Adding a Windows Deployment Autopilot Profile

One of the annoying repetitive tasks when you start setting up Autopilot is the Autopilot profile. This script will automate that for you and set the settings to your wishes. I don’t directly apply the profile, because sometimes you just want to make some tiny edits per client before applying.

########################## Office 365 ############################
$ApplicationId = 'YourApplicationID'
$ApplicationSecret = 'SecretApplicationSecret' | Convertto-SecureString -AsPlainText -Force
$TenantID = 'YourTenantID'
$RefreshToken = 'SuperSecretRefreshToken'
$upn = 'UPN-Used-To-Generate-Tokens'
$CustomerTenantID = "YOURCLIENTSTENANT.onmicrosoft.com"
########################## Office 365 ############################
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential($ApplicationId, $ApplicationSecret)
write-host "Generating token to log into Intune" -ForegroundColor Green
$graphToken = New-PartnerAccessToken -ApplicationId $ApplicationId -Credential $credential -RefreshToken $refreshToken -Scopes 'https://graph.microsoft.com/.default' -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $CustomerTenantID
$Header = @{
    Authorization = "Bearer $($graphToken.AccessToken)"
}
write-host "Creating Deployment Profile" -ForegroundColor Green

$intuneBody = @{
    "@odata.type"                          = "#microsoft.graph.activeDirectoryWindowsAutopilotDeploymentProfile"
    displayName                            = "CyberDrain.com Default Profile"
    description                            = "This deployment profile has been created by the CyberDrain.com Profile Deployment script"
    language                               = 'EN'
    hybridAzureADJoinSkipConnectivityCheck = $true
    extractHardwareHash                    = $true
    enableWhiteGlove                       = $true
    outOfBoxExperienceSettings             = @{
        "@odata.type"             = "microsoft.graph.outOfBoxExperienceSettings"
        hidePrivacySettings       = $true
        hideEULA                  = $true
        userType                  = 'Standard'
        deviceUsageType           = 'Shared'
        skipKeyboardSelectionPage = $true
        hideEscapeLink            = $true
    }
    enrollmentStatusScreenSettings         = @{
        '@odata.type'                                    = "microsoft.graph.windowsEnrollmentStatusScreenSettings"
        hideInstallationProgress                         = $true
        allowDeviceUseBeforeProfileAndAppInstallComplete = $true
        blockDeviceSetupRetryByUser                      = $false
        allowLogCollectionOnInstallFailure               = $true
        customErrorMessage                               = "An error has occured. Please contact your IT Administrator"
        installProgressTimeoutInMinutes                  = "15"
        allowDeviceUseOnInstallFailure                   = $true
    }
} | ConvertTo-Json

$InTuneProfileURI = "https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/deviceManagement/windowsAutopilotDeploymentProfiles"
Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $InTuneProfileURI -Headers $Header -body $intuneBody -Method POST -ContentType "application/json"

And that’s it! Maybe I’ll focus on creating applications via PowerShell and assigning them next time. If you have any requests, let me know!

As always, Happy PowerShelling