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Monitoring with PowerShell: Monitoring the Onedrive client limitations

I wrote about monitoring the Onedrive sync status some time ago. That blog gained a lot of popularity. Implementing it allows you to monitor Onedrive, which runs in user mode while using your RMM that often runs under system.

So after a while we’ve noticed that we bumped into issues that weren’t getting captured by monitoring just the sync state. Onedrive tends to get performance issues when syncing more than 300k files. This also counts for files on demand. There are some other limitations but the best write-up about this is here. Large libraries just tend to make things a little screwy.

To tackle this you can use the following script. This gets all the synced sites, lists the Item count, checks if the sum is higher than 280k and alerts if that is true. This helped us tackle performance problems and nip them in the bud pretty early on 🙂

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$IniFiles = Get-ChildItem "$ENV:LOCALAPPDATA\Microsoft\OneDrive\settings\Business1" -Filter 'ClientPolicy*' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

if (!$IniFiles) {
write-host "No Onedrive configuration files found. Stopping script."
exit 1
}

$SyncedLibraries = foreach ($inifile in $IniFiles) {
    $IniContent = get-content $inifile.fullname -Encoding Unicode
    [PSCustomObject]@{
        'Item Count' = ($IniContent | Where-Object { $_ -like 'ItemCount*' }) -split '= ' | Select-Object -last 1
        'Site Name'  = ($IniContent | Where-Object { $_ -like 'SiteTitle*' }) -split '= ' | Select-Object -last 1
        'Site URL'   = ($IniContent | Where-Object { $\_ -like 'DavUrlNamespace\*' }) -split '= ' | Select-Object -last 1
}
}

if (($SyncedLibraries.'Item count' | Measure-Object -Sum).sum -gt '280000') {
write-host "Unhealthy - Currently syncing more than 280k files. Please investigate."
$SyncedLibraries
}
else {
write-host "Healthy - Syncing less than 280k files."
}

Running this script directly often doesn’t work, because we’ll bump into the same issue we have with the OneDrive monitoring script. To fix that, use the version below. This impersonates the current user. Remember that this should run as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM.

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$Source = @"
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

namespace murrayju.ProcessExtensions
{
    public static class ProcessExtensions
    {
        #region Win32 Constants

        private const int CREATE_UNICODE_ENVIRONMENT = 0x00000400;
        private const int CREATE_NO_WINDOW = 0x08000000;

        private const int CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE = 0x00000010;

        private const uint INVALID_SESSION_ID = 0xFFFFFFFF;
        private static readonly IntPtr WTS_CURRENT_SERVER_HANDLE = IntPtr.Zero;

        #endregion

        #region DllImports

        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", EntryPoint = "CreateProcessAsUser", SetLastError = true, CharSet = CharSet.Ansi, CallingConvention = CallingConvention.StdCall)]
        private static extern bool CreateProcessAsUser(
            IntPtr hToken,
            String lpApplicationName,
            String lpCommandLine,
            IntPtr lpProcessAttributes,
            IntPtr lpThreadAttributes,
            bool bInheritHandle,
            uint dwCreationFlags,
            IntPtr lpEnvironment,
            String lpCurrentDirectory,
            ref STARTUPINFO lpStartupInfo,
            out PROCESS_INFORMATION lpProcessInformation);

        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", EntryPoint = "DuplicateTokenEx")]
        private static extern bool DuplicateTokenEx(
            IntPtr ExistingTokenHandle,
            uint dwDesiredAccess,
            IntPtr lpThreadAttributes,
            int TokenType,
            int ImpersonationLevel,
            ref IntPtr DuplicateTokenHandle);

        [DllImport("userenv.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern bool CreateEnvironmentBlock(ref IntPtr lpEnvironment, IntPtr hToken, bool bInherit);

        [DllImport("userenv.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
        private static extern bool DestroyEnvironmentBlock(IntPtr lpEnvironment);

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern bool CloseHandle(IntPtr hSnapshot);

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll")]
        private static extern uint WTSGetActiveConsoleSessionId();

        [DllImport("Wtsapi32.dll")]
        private static extern uint WTSQueryUserToken(uint SessionId, ref IntPtr phToken);

        [DllImport("wtsapi32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern int WTSEnumerateSessions(
            IntPtr hServer,
            int Reserved,
            int Version,
            ref IntPtr ppSessionInfo,
            ref int pCount);

        #endregion

        #region Win32 Structs

        private enum SW
        {
            SW_HIDE = 0,
            SW_SHOWNORMAL = 1,
            SW_NORMAL = 1,
            SW_SHOWMINIMIZED = 2,
            SW_SHOWMAXIMIZED = 3,
            SW_MAXIMIZE = 3,
            SW_SHOWNOACTIVATE = 4,
            SW_SHOW = 5,
            SW_MINIMIZE = 6,
            SW_SHOWMINNOACTIVE = 7,
            SW_SHOWNA = 8,
            SW_RESTORE = 9,
            SW_SHOWDEFAULT = 10,
            SW_MAX = 10
        }

        private enum WTS_CONNECTSTATE_CLASS
        {
            WTSActive,
            WTSConnected,
            WTSConnectQuery,
            WTSShadow,
            WTSDisconnected,
            WTSIdle,
            WTSListen,
            WTSReset,
            WTSDown,
            WTSInit
        }

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct PROCESS_INFORMATION
        {
            public IntPtr hProcess;
            public IntPtr hThread;
            public uint dwProcessId;
            public uint dwThreadId;
        }

        private enum SECURITY_IMPERSONATION_LEVEL
        {
            SecurityAnonymous = 0,
            SecurityIdentification = 1,
            SecurityImpersonation = 2,
            SecurityDelegation = 3,
        }

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct STARTUPINFO
        {
            public int cb;
            public String lpReserved;
            public String lpDesktop;
            public String lpTitle;
            public uint dwX;
            public uint dwY;
            public uint dwXSize;
            public uint dwYSize;
            public uint dwXCountChars;
            public uint dwYCountChars;
            public uint dwFillAttribute;
            public uint dwFlags;
            public short wShowWindow;
            public short cbReserved2;
            public IntPtr lpReserved2;
            public IntPtr hStdInput;
            public IntPtr hStdOutput;
            public IntPtr hStdError;
        }

        private enum TOKEN_TYPE
        {
            TokenPrimary = 1,
            TokenImpersonation = 2
        }

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct WTS_SESSION_INFO
        {
            public readonly UInt32 SessionID;

            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)]
            public readonly String pWinStationName;

            public readonly WTS_CONNECTSTATE_CLASS State;
        }

        #endregion

        // Gets the user token from the currently active session
        private static bool GetSessionUserToken(ref IntPtr phUserToken)
        {
            var bResult = false;
            var hImpersonationToken = IntPtr.Zero;
            var activeSessionId = INVALID_SESSION_ID;
            var pSessionInfo = IntPtr.Zero;
            var sessionCount = 0;

            // Get a handle to the user access token for the current active session.
            if (WTSEnumerateSessions(WTS_CURRENT_SERVER_HANDLE, 0, 1, ref pSessionInfo, ref sessionCount) != 0)
            {
                var arrayElementSize = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(WTS_SESSION_INFO));
                var current = pSessionInfo;

                for (var i = 0; i < sessionCount; i++)
                {
                    var si = (WTS_SESSION_INFO)Marshal.PtrToStructure((IntPtr)current, typeof(WTS_SESSION_INFO));
                    current += arrayElementSize;

                    if (si.State == WTS_CONNECTSTATE_CLASS.WTSActive)
                    {
                        activeSessionId = si.SessionID;
                    }
                }
            }

            // If enumerating did not work, fall back to the old method
            if (activeSessionId == INVALID_SESSION_ID)
            {
                activeSessionId = WTSGetActiveConsoleSessionId();
            }

            if (WTSQueryUserToken(activeSessionId, ref hImpersonationToken) != 0)
            {
                // Convert the impersonation token to a primary token
                bResult = DuplicateTokenEx(hImpersonationToken, 0, IntPtr.Zero,
                    (int)SECURITY_IMPERSONATION_LEVEL.SecurityImpersonation, (int)TOKEN_TYPE.TokenPrimary,
                    ref phUserToken);

                CloseHandle(hImpersonationToken);
            }

            return bResult;
        }

        public static bool StartProcessAsCurrentUser(string appPath, string cmdLine = null, string workDir = null, bool visible = true)
        {
            var hUserToken = IntPtr.Zero;
            var startInfo = new STARTUPINFO();
            var procInfo = new PROCESS_INFORMATION();
            var pEnv = IntPtr.Zero;
            int iResultOfCreateProcessAsUser;

            startInfo.cb = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(STARTUPINFO));

            try
            {
                if (!GetSessionUserToken(ref hUserToken))
                {
                    throw new Exception("StartProcessAsCurrentUser: GetSessionUserToken failed.");
                }

                uint dwCreationFlags = CREATE_UNICODE_ENVIRONMENT | (uint)(visible ? CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE : CREATE_NO_WINDOW);
                startInfo.wShowWindow = (short)(visible ? SW.SW_SHOW : SW.SW_HIDE);
                startInfo.lpDesktop = "winsta0\\default";

                if (!CreateEnvironmentBlock(ref pEnv, hUserToken, false))
                {
                    throw new Exception("StartProcessAsCurrentUser: CreateEnvironmentBlock failed.");
                }

                if (!CreateProcessAsUser(hUserToken,
                    appPath, // Application Name
                    cmdLine, // Command Line
                    IntPtr.Zero,
                    IntPtr.Zero,
                    false,
                    dwCreationFlags,
                    pEnv,
                    workDir, // Working directory
                    ref startInfo,
                    out procInfo))
                {
                    throw new Exception("StartProcessAsCurrentUser: CreateProcessAsUser failed.\n");
                }

                iResultOfCreateProcessAsUser = Marshal.GetLastWin32Error();
            }
            finally
            {
                CloseHandle(hUserToken);
                if (pEnv != IntPtr.Zero)
                {
                    DestroyEnvironmentBlock(pEnv);
                }
                CloseHandle(procInfo.hThread);
                CloseHandle(procInfo.hProcess);
            }
            return true;
        }
    }
}


"@

Add-Type -ReferencedAssemblies 'System', 'System.Runtime.InteropServices' -TypeDefinition $Source -Language CSharp

$scriptblock = {
    $IniFiles = Get-ChildItem "$ENV:LOCALAPPDATA\Microsoft\OneDrive\settings\Business1" -Filter 'ClientPolicy*' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

    if (!$IniFiles) {
        write-host 'No Onedrive configuration files found. Stopping script.'
        exit 1
    }

    $SyncedLibraries = foreach ($inifile in $IniFiles) {
        $IniContent = get-content $inifile.fullname -Encoding Unicode
        [PSCustomObject]@{
            'Item Count' = ($IniContent | Where-Object { $_ -like 'ItemCount*' }) -split '= ' | Select-Object -last 1
            'Site Name'  = ($IniContent | Where-Object { $_ -like 'SiteTitle*' }) -split '= ' | Select-Object -last 1
            'Site URL'   = ($IniContent | Where-Object { $_ -like 'DavUrlNamespace*' }) -split '= ' | Select-Object -last 1
        }
    }
    $SyncedLibraries | ConvertTo-Json | Out-File 'C:\programdata\Microsoft OneDrive\OneDriveLibraries.txt'
}


[murrayju.ProcessExtensions.ProcessExtensions]::StartProcessAsCurrentUser("C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowershell\v1.0\Powershell.exe", "-command $($scriptblock)", "C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowershell\v1.0", $false)
start-sleep 5

$SyncedLibraries = (get-content "C:\programdata\Microsoft OneDrive\OneDriveLibraries.txt" | convertfrom-json)
if (($SyncedLibraries.'Item count' | Measure-Object -Sum).sum -gt '280000') {
    write-host "Unhealthy - Currently syncing more than 280k files. Please investigate."
    $SyncedLibraries
}
else {
    write-host "Healthy - Syncing less than 280k files."
}

And that’s it! as always PowerShelling 🙂

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